What can we learn from fidelity of implementation monitoring models within early grade reading programs?

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Early grade reading programs have become a focus of significant investment in the international development community in recent years. These interventions often include similar components: the development of mother-tongue teaching and learning materials including structured teacher guides and pupil books; teacher professional development including in-service training, ongoing coaching, and professional learning communities; and community engagement around reading. The theory of change posits that, in combination, these components will lead to improved reading skills for pupils. However, this involves a certain leap of faith, because we don’t usually know what teachers do in their classrooms when the door is closed.

We believe the effectiveness of early grade reading programs requires a clear understanding of the extent to which these programs are implemented according to design at the classroom level. In other words, it requires a clear understanding of the fidelity of implementation (FOI) of the programs, to enable identification of gaps in programming and of steps to improve implementation. Currently, FOI monitoring is central to many early grade reading programs around the world, including smaller pilot programs, mid-sized interventions and programs at scale. The data is viewed as highly useful because it is so actionable – in fact, our experience has shown that governments are often very interested in integrating classroom-level FOI data into their own monitoring systems.

From designing our own FHI 360 FOI monitoring systems, it became clear that there are a number of different models with wide-ranging cost and sustainability implications. In this post, we provide an overview of FOI, describe the FOI monitoring models from two of our own early grade reading projects in Ghana and Nigeria, and outline a research study that aims to see what we could learn from them.