Research improves handwashing programs by uncovering drivers of behavior change

 
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Evidence on the health and social benefits of handwashing is strong. We know that handwashing can prevent up to 40% of diarrheal diseases, and can lead to fewer school absences and increased economic productivity. However, many people don’t wash their hands at critical times, even when handwashing facilities are available. While research on behavior change has shown examples of approaches that lead to increased rates in handwashing, we’re still seeking to understand why people wash their hands, and how motivation for handwashing can be translated into programs that result in effective behavior change.

In advance of Global Handwashing Day on October 15, USAID and the Global Handwashing Partnership – an international coalition with a Secretariat hosted by FHI 360 – organized a webinar on drivers for handwashing behavior change. The Partnership’s work focuses on promoting handwashing with soap as key to health and development, with an emphasis on connecting practitioners with research findings to inform their work. Our webinar speakers provided two examples of how research is exploring behavior change from cognitive (how we think about and understand handwashing) and automatic (how we can be unconsciously prompted to wash our hands) standpoints. In this blog post, I’ll summarize how the two examples show different ways of understanding human behavior and discuss how the findings help us understand what drives behavior change for handwashing.

Call for papers: Optimizing the impact of key population programming across the HIV cascade

 
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Key populations – including men who have sex with men, sex workers, transgender people, and people who inject drugs – shoulder a disproportionate burden of HIV. UNAIDS estimates that between 40 and 50 percent of all new HIV infections among adults worldwide occur in these key populations and among their sex partners. Reaching members of these communities with evidence-based interventions that improve their access to and uptake of services across the HIV prevention, care, and treatment cascade is essential to achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. In this post, I highlight a new call for papers that will focus on new evidence and data-driven strategies for improving key population programming across the HIV cascade.

Show me the evidence: Cultivating knowledge on governance and food security

 
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I recently participated in a salon on integrating governance and food security work to enhance development outcomes. Convened by the LOCUS coalition and FHI 360, the salon gathered experts in evaluation, governance and food security to review challenges and best practices for generating evidence and knowledge. A post-salon discussion recorded with Annette Brown and Joseph Sany speaks to the gaps in evidence and the need to more accurately measure how governance principles influence food security outcomes.

I came out of the salon conversation thinking that while there was a hunger for evidence, there are still large gaps and significant differences within the literature on things as basic as definitions. That being said, I wanted to dig a bit more into what evidence was actually out there and think about what needs to be done to move this budding evidence base forward. In this post, I highlight three pieces of interesting research that contribute to the evidence base on governance and food security integration, and then propose a few suggestions on how to grow that knowledge base.

Teasing apart stigma and knowledge as barriers to HIV testing: A study with young Black adults in Durham, North Carolina

 
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What experiences do young Black adults in Durham, North Carolina, have with HIV testing? And what influence does stigma play on those experiences? To answer these questions, my co-authors and I recently published the results of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study: Relationship between HIV knowledge, HIV-related stigma, and HIV testing among young Black adults in a southeastern city. Our cross-sectional survey examined barriers, facilitators and contributors to HIV testing. This blog post summarizes our findings and provides guidance on HIV prevention strategies.

LINKAGES research digest highlights ability of young key populations to access and remain in the HIV care cascade

 
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On a quarterly basis, the LINKAGES project releases a research digest comprised of the latest peer-reviewed article abstracts related to HIV and key populations (KPs) – sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people, and people who inject drugs. LINKAGES is PEPFAR and USAID’s largest global project dedicated to using evidence-based approaches for reducing HIV transmission among KPs and improving their enrollment and retention in care. KPs have the highest risk of contracting HIV and often face formidable barriers to accessing prevention, care, and treatment services. The research digest keeps implementers and researchers up to date on the rapidly expanding evidence base pertaining to HIV services for KPs on a global scale. So, what did we learn about young KPs and HIV in the past quarter?