Don’t spin the bottle, please: Challenges in the implementation of probability sampling designs in the field, Part II

 
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In part I, I reviewed how the principles of probability samples apply to household sampling for valid (inferential) statistical analysis and focused on the challenges faced in selecting enumeration areas (EAs). When we want a probability sample of households, multi-stage sampling approaches are usually used, where EAs are selected in the first stage of sampling and households then selected from the sampled EAs in the second stage. (Additional stages may be added if deemed necessary.) In this post, I move on to the selection of households within the sampled EAs. I’ll focus on the sampling principles, challenges, approaches and recommendations.

Sample size is not king: Challenges in the implementation of probability sampling designs in the field, Part I

 
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So you want a probability sample of households to measure their level of economic vulnerability; or to evaluate the HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of teenagers; or to understand how people use health services such as antenatal care; or to estimate the prevalence of stunting or the prevalence and incidence of HIV. You know that probability samples are needed for valid (inferential) statistical analysis. But you may ask, what does it take to obtain a rigorous probability sample?