Implementation research: The unambiguous cornerstone of implementation science

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Three years ago, I wrote that there was no clear consensus on the definition of implementation science in global health. Today we are no closer to agreement. In 2015, Thomas Odeny and colleagues published a review that showed 73 unique definitions, and the Implementing Best Practices Initiative conducted a survey that showed no consensus on a definition across 27 international organizations. To confuse matters more, the term is used interchangeably with implementation research; operations research; monitoring, evaluation and learning; real-world research; and other non-research approaches focused on refining implementation strategies.

Since implementation science is defined so broadly and because no one can agree on a definition, what is the key to making sense of it all? In my work, I focus on the most well-defined, understandable sub-domain of implementation science: implementation research. I argue that it’s the heart and soul of implementation science. In this blog post, I’ll define implementation research and outline why it makes for such a useful concept.